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Tuesday, 22 May 2012

Book Review: Soldiers and Uniforms of the Napleonic Wars by François Guy Hourtoulle

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I originally did this review for Amazon but thought I might put it here with some others I have done. I hope it is useful. I may put one or two examples of the plates up as well when I get back from working away in the bush. 


This is a wonderful book with over 100 color plates. I counted and this does not include the blow-ups of many parts of these that are presented separately. The quality of the plates varies as three different artists were involved in the project, but even the worst are quite good. There is a definite bias to the uniforms of the French and its allied nations (see the list below). Accompanying nearly every plate is a page describing the scene and its circumstances or perhaps general information about a battle, campaign and uniforms. The one thing I would have liked when I was thinking of buying this book was a better idea of what was in it. So below I have summarized the sections and plates. The plates are of French troops unless otherwise stated and where there is more than on plate it is recorded (#). Some Plates have no accompanying information (eg chapter title pages) and so I have not described these.

Before the Empire: Lasalle at Vicenza; Lasalle and 22nd Chasseur and 15th Dragoon vs Osman Bey's Mamelukes; 10th Hussars.

1805: 19th Dragoon at Elchingen; 18th Dragoon at Elchingen; General Pajol and 6th Hussar at Ulm; The Great Charge at Austerlitz.

1806: 7th Hussars and 5th Hussars vs the Queen's Dragoons (Prussia); General Colbert, 10th Chasseurs and 3rd Hussars at Jena; Marechal Davout and line infantry at Auerstaedt; Lassale, 5th and 7th Hussars.

1807: Gendarmes d'ordonnance; Murat and D'Hautpool's Cuirassiers at Eylau; Murat and the 13th Chasseurs at Eylau; Baron Lepic and the Grenadiers a Cheval at Eylau; Murat, aide de camps and Espagne's Cuirassiers at Heilsberg; Napoleon and staff reviewing Lasalle's cavalry at Elbing.

1808: Isemburg Regiment; The Emperor's household; The Emperor's Berlin.

The Peninsula, 1808-14: Lasalle and the Polish Chevau-Legers; Lasalle, Gendarme d'Elite and Dragoons at Medina de Rio Seco; Garde de Paris(2); 10th Chasseurs vs the Infante Regiment (Spanish); 10th Chasseurs; 2nd Hussars(2); 13th Cuirassiers; Gendarmerie de Espagne(2); Neuchatel Battalion; Foot Artillery; Young Guard; Isemberg Regiment; Vistula Legion(2); Chasseurs de Montagne.

1809: The Bavarian Troops; General Coehorn, Corsican Tirailleurs and the 14th Chasseurs at Ebersberg; Jordi's Regiment (Austrian line, 'German') vs French light (24th?) at Aspern; General Espagne and the 4th Cuirassiers; Pontooners; The Baden Infantry 1809, 3rd Baden Regiment vs Austrian Line 'Hungarian' (2); 1st Chasseurs a Cheval(2); Fusiliers of the Guard(2); Artillerie a Pied of the Guard.

In Garrison 1810-13: Berg Chevau Legers(2); Nansouty's Cuirassiers(2); 11th Hussars; King Murat and Neapolitan line regiment and Neapolitan Grenadiers of the Guard(3); 30th Chasseurs.

1812: General Chouard's Carabiniers, 4th Lancers and Chevau-Legers; General Montbrun and the 9th Hussars; King Jerome, Grenadier Guard and Kings Lifeguard (Westphalian); Westphalian Hussars; 7th Regiment (Westphalian); 2nd, 5th and 6th Regiments (Westphalian); General Pajol, 2nd Chasseurs and 9th Polish Lancers; Saxon Chevau-Legers(2); General Gudin and sappers at Valutina; Russian Guard vs 12th Line; Portuguese Legion(2); 1st Voltigeurs of the Guard(2) and Novgorod Cuirassiers (Russian, 1); Saxon Brigade (Lifeguards, Von Zastrow Cuirassiers(2)); Dragoons of the Imperial Guard; 2nd Regiment of Grenadiers; Croats in the Grand Armee(2); Hessian Chevau-Legers; Baden Hussars(2); Lithuanian Tartars.

1813: Naval Artillery; Jerome Napoleon Hussars; 13th Hussars; Field Hospitals and Medical Care; The Krakus (Polish).

1814: Guards of Honour(2).

1815: Allied Forces 16 June 1815 (Brunswickers, British 92nd(2)); Wellington's staff at Waterloo; English Horse Artillery; Red Lancers(2); Young Guard.

Sunday, 13 May 2012

Rules, bases and ordering

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So I have been slightly baffled by trying to work out how I can base my models so I can play Black Powder, Lasalle and Napoleon at War rule systems. I looked at the rules themselves and then looked at some message boards.

Napoleon at War

Looks fun, has standard basing and unit numbers.

Lasalle

Has instead a more flexible system regarding ratio but instead has standard numbers of bases for each unit.


"There are three basic types of units: Infantry, Cavalry, and Artillery. Infantry and cavalry units may be depicted in one of two sizes: Small or Large. Large units have six bases each, and Small units have four. Artillery units have a varying number of bases, between three and five, as described in their army lists."

So theoretically you can have as many or as few per base as you wish.

Black Powder

I have the rules but I have not read through the tome properly so I am relying on the wisdom of others:

"Base sizes don't matter at all - just play with what you already have. The whole premise of BP was to be able to play with our respective collections whether they were based for different systems or not.

On the size of units thats flexible too - you pick the size of a 'standard' unit and then tiny, small and large units are decided based on a ratio of the standard Sounds a bit mathematical but it really isn't! So, again it's very flexible and aims to allow players to just play games with their armies rather than having to rebase or to have to standardise their armies compared to their mates." (Paul @ Warlord Games) 

Campaign Game Miniatures

Just to complicate matters just that little bit more Dermot Quigley at Campaign Game Miniatures is also working on a new rules set. I can't wait to learn more and I asked him about the rules as I would like my new armies to be compatible. Link to Campaign Game Miniatures.

Thoughts

So from my perspective I am thinking of rebasing my models to NaW bases. I am also thinking of bringing my regiments upto Lasalle size battalions. Having said that NaW has the skirmishers separately, you can do the same with Lasalle. But the different ratios means that having each of these look 'right' regarding the number of voltigeur and grenadier companies might be a bit hard. Hmmm, tough life!
Napoleon at War assorted bases

Does anyone have any thoughts on basing for different rule systems? I have been reading blogs and message boards but any thoughts are welcome! 

Saturday, 12 May 2012

Irresistible Force Miniature Games & Hobbies

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I have been researching different Napoleonic wargame rule sets for my next project. I have been looking at Napoleon at War, their models, blogs and chat pages. It seems interesting. That led me to look at Hovel buildings (I need to have some scenery to kick it up a notch!). Looking at distributors for Australia I came up with Essex miniatures (wasn't impressed with their website) and Irresistible Force Miniature Games & Hobbies (very impressed, huge range!). Then I noticed they were in Brisbane, only about 120km from home on the Sunshine Coast. Three of the kids were keen so we jumped in the car to go check it out. Boy was I happy I went there!


There was some drama on the highway (came to a dead stop 10km from the joint). But we took a back road and bam, we were there! 


Gavin Clarke runs the shop (@IrresistibleF) and he was fantastic. He answered all my questions, had everything I wanted, and assured me that although they can't carry everything in the store as there are simply too many lines these days, they have a quick turnaround even when they have to order in from overseas. I will be putting him to the test very soon! Some pics of the shop:




Showing me were the gaming area is
I was very impressed that Gavin took the time to answer my questions, helped find what I was interested in, gave useful advice and was generally very approachable. He even took the time to answer my questions about what games and systems were most popular. He was also very knowledgeable about Napoleon at War and had obviously spent the time to learn about the line and had played a couple of games using the rules. All in all I was very happy I made the effort to go down. Always nice to put a face to an email and website!




So here is what I got:



  • The Napoleon at War rules.
  • A French 100 days line brigade.
  • Army Painter dip.
  • Vallejo wash pot.
  • Mininatur grass tufts
  • Gale Force Nine basing kit
  • Hovel large bridge (15mm)
  • Citadel gaming grass (I actually got this from Games Workshop down the road but just wanted to chuck it in cause I love it!)
I was keen to have a look at the Napoleon at War models and read the rules. So I will keep you posted :)

I have been looking at the AP dip because I was interested in how well it would work for me. But I forgot to get a can of matt topcoat! First thing on my order. I saw Glenn Lamprecht painting some Victrix for Vallejo using their pot of wash and wanted to try it out as well. So I will post some pick of my next painting project.

Monday, 7 May 2012

Old Photos

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Here are some old photos I thought I would chuck up on the blog. Tell me what you think. All advice/criticism welcome!

A Dutch battalion



Tongue depressors as model holders. Haven't used them for ages. Thinking of using plastic bottle tops. Got plenty, saw it on someone's blog and thought that looks good.
 An old paint station. Designed to fit perfectly over an old couch that was very comfy.
 I used to undercoat in white. Now I use black. Not sure what I like best. I use Citadel spray paints for this.
 My paint box. Now far too small for my paints and thinking of getting a multi story tool box. I arrange them by shades.
 Some Prussians, ready to paint. They are still not finished. A project of my son's. I am going to finish them off and expand them for Lasalle and Blackpowder battles.
 Some of my fave books. I certainly feel very lucky to be able to have such a handy collection.

New Direction

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Well, not so much a new direction as a new purpose. I have decided to make a new army for wargaming. Now, I already have a bunch of British, Spanish, Portuguese, French and then some Prussians, Saxons, Bavarians. I bought a new group of Austrians the other day, four battalions of foot, regiment of cavalry, general. But they have mysteriously disappeared! Very annoying. I suspect the box they came in was thgrown out by accident by one of the kids (or it might just reappear!).

Anyway, so I was looking around and noticed the LaSalle packs at Eureka Miniatures (AB) and at Warmodelling. That got me looking around and then I remembered I had already looked at the Lasalle Honour website of Sam Mustafa. So I grabbed a copy of the PDF for aus$16. I like it. Then I remembered I had a copy of Blackpowder. So I got it out as well. I was also looking over the latest copy of Miniature Wargames and they had a good article based upon a reader survey of the most popular rule systems for the different eras. Black Powder won out for Napoleonics. So looking over the two rules systems it seems as though you could make an army that would work for both. So I have to look at this more closely and see if I am right.

On an aside I recently subscribed to Miniature Wargames on my iPad newstand. I think it is aus$5.49 a month. Pretty good, about half the price of the hardcopy and it can be hard to get (I travel a lot, never remember, blah blah blah). They have free a free trial edition over there too. Any thoughts on other useful magazines?

Here is my painting tray, one of three I made to make it move around the models I am working on. I just got some of the the new Citadel paints and some of their brushes. Two new textured paints, a bright green I like and a wash.


 These are the some Polish Lancers and Italian guard. Not too close so you can't see my shame!

 Seeing all the interesting results from using Army Painter and watching a video from Vallejo and Victrix on their washes I have been thinking of giving them a go. I have found a Army Painter distributor in Australia (bit pricey!), War and Peace Games, so fingers crossed on that front. My local stockist of Vallejo, don't have the 200ml pots of wash, but I have a small one. I emailed Vallejo about who imports them but no luck on a reply yet (they have responded on another question several years ago, so I think they wil

Ottoman Empire | Turkey | Sublime Porte

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I had a request from DeanM from WAB Corner regarding the Ottoman empire, specifically the Russo-Turkish War 1806-12. So here is what I have been able to pull together. Doing the research is one of my most favourite parts of this hobby. I usually find all that I can, start with the basics and work up. I collect all the plates I can and then I draw them in my sketch book with notes on each uniform and unit relevant to painting them up. I am no artist, it is simple stuff, but I find it invaluable.

I hope you like it. Any errors please feel free to comment or email me so I can fix it.

Army

The Ottoman army was broken into three main divisions: regulars; irregulars; provincial forces. Sultan Selim III had attempted to reform the army during his reign, 1789-1807. However, this went poorly as he was after a Janissary revolt in response to his creation of new forces that resulted in his nephew Sultan Mustafa IV replacing him. The return of loyal soldiers to Selim III in 1808 during a temporary peace with Russia (Treaty of Tilsit) led to the death of Selim and Mustafa and the sole survivor of the family Sultan Mahmod III was enthroned.

The Grand Vizier used his personal irregular force of 10,000 Kirjalis to suppress the Janissaries and installed Selims new troops as battalions called Nizam-i Cedit that were initially associated with te Bostanji Imperial Guard. The 1807 revolt by the Janissaries saw the Nizam-i Cedit attacked and disbanded. However, they were promptly reinstated in 1808 under Sultan Mahmoud.

I put this picture back together from the Vinkhuijzen collection. It was probably done around 1812 but possibly as late as 1820. I think it shows Sultan Mahmoud II reviewing his troops. There are various officers and grandees in the foreground. Janissaries can be seen in the midground. In the background to the right and left are more troops, possibly regional troops. These are matched by the light cavalry, probably Sipahi. 

Infantry

Each army corp was known as an Ojak, or 'hearth'. It was divided into ortas, or battalions, and each orta into odas,  or rooms, the notional barrack room of each oda.  Each orta was as small as 100 men, reaching upto 500 men during times of war. However, recruitment for ortas may have been influenced by the fame of each orta. McLean (1818) records the 35th being the most famous and having a peak number of 30,000 men. Although there were likely around 150,000 Janissaries registered in this period, and some estimate upto 400,000, the actual numbers that could be summoned were likely to be no more than 50,000.

Administrative Ranks
Nazir - Supervisor of a corps
Aga - Commander of regiment of large unit
Kethuda - Executive officer
Katib - Chief scribe
Cavus basi - Sergeant-major
Kapu cukador - Chief orderly


Ranks
Senior officers
Corbaci - Colonel
Odabasi - Colonel's aide
Vekilharc - Commissary
Middle officers
Bayraktar - Standard bearer
Asci Basi - Chief cook
Saki - Water bearer
Junior officers
Mulazim - Junior officer
Kullukcu - orderly
NCOs
Cavus - Sargent or disciplinary officer
Ser boluk - Corporal
Bolukbasi - Junior NCO


Regular infantry

L-R Janissariy of the Guard Corps, Pay Officer of the 25th orta, Oda Bashi (room leader), Kolouk Bariaktari (sub-officer) of the Guard Corps.

Janissaries
The main infantry force of the Ottoman army were the Janissaries. The Janissaries were chosen from among the christian populations of Anatolia and the Balkans. These troops were broken into three
classes of orta. Jemaat, of which there were 101 (the 1st guarded the Sultan, the 101st was a marine orta) and guarded the frontiers. The Beuluk of 61 ortas, who also guarded the sultan.. The Sekban or Seiman (irregular troops of musketeers) of 34 ortas. There were also 34 ortas of ajami or cadets based in Algiers.

As noted above some ortas had specific duties they had won. The 1st Jemaat orta guarded the Sultan, the 101st was a marine battalion. Some guarded foreign embassies, policed Istanbul, acted as firemen, some ortas held individual citadels in Istanbul.  

Each orta was normally a closed organisation and permanently garrisoned. Discipline and promotion normally from only inside the orta. The head of the orta was know as a Çorbacı. The jannisaries were unpaid in peacetime but were provided rations and usually illegally supplemented this with a craft trade.

The uniform was largely unregulated however the Albanian or European style troops appear to have been uniform (see below).

The distinctive feature of the Janissaries was their tall cap being originally white but later red. At times of ceremony the Janissaries wore blue breeches, red shoes and a cap. The cut being important to the identity of the Janissaries. Officers were distinguished by their boot colour. The Beuluk Çorbacı wore red boots, the other orta Çorbacı wearing yellow. Subordinate officers wore black boots. The Janissaries were meant to neither marry nor wear beards.

The weapons used by the Janissaries usually were comprised of the older style matchlocks (unlike the flintlock, slower but more accurate), knives and swords. Bayonets were despised.

Bostanjis
Salaried Regulars. Stationed around Istanbul and Edirne. Elite reserve. Similar in attitude regarding warfare to the Janissaries. Several thousand in number.

Solaks
Small ceremonial guard unit of the Sultan's palace.

Nizam- Cedit (new army), attached to the Bostanjis 
The first westernised troops were raised in 1791 (Nicolle 1998) and trained to perform Russian drills. The Nizam-i Cedit was a mixture of old and new and perhaps heralded the end of the old ways. The first troops were raised from Istanbul's poor and officered by Russians and Germans (Nicolle 1989). These new troops were attached to the Bostanji Imperial Guard to try and minimise the reaction of the Janissaries. Their expansion began in earnest. A body of 12,000 men were raised in 1796 based upon the armaments and field manual of the army of Great Britain (McLean 1818), however, Nicolle (1998) states it was based on the french manual. by 1806 there were 25,000 Nizam-i Cedit, with half in Isnabul and Anatolia (Nicolle 1998). The provincial Pashas were encouraged to raise regiments.

The first regiment had the following command structure:
binbasi - colonel
aga-i yemin - major of the right
aga-i yesar - major of the left
Each aga-i was in charge of a battalion.
Each battalion had 12 boluk or companies each led by a bolukbasi or yuzbasi and each company into platoons under and onbasi.

Each boluk had a cannon and eight topci or artilleryman, a top ustasi or cannon master, five arabasi or cannon wagoneers and six kullukcu or orderlies.

Blue pants, red coat, red brimless cap, white belts. Blue piping, collar, cuffs. Red shoes.  Lighter red cap in the field. Officers have gold lace on jacket.

Irregular Infantry


Azabs
Light volunteer infantry, also conscripted. Volunteered on the basis of hope of plunder. (Schevill, Ferdinand 1922 The History of the Balkan Peninsula. Ayer Publishing)


Kirjalis
Corp of Grand Viziers irregular troops. 10,000 in 1806. The Kirjalis were recruited largely from urban and semi-urban sources. These included demobilised soldiers, property less servants and farmhands, as well as the homeless. Ethnically they were mixed Turks and other Asiatic groups as well as Albanians, Bosnians and Bulgarians as well as being Christians and Muslims. (Stoianovich, T. 1994 Balkan Worlds: the first and last Europe. Armonk, New York)

Segban Infantry
Rural militia


Arnaut Infantry
Troops raised in Macedonia, Morea, Sclavonia and commanded by native officers. Excellent marksmen, ideally formed into units of 1000. Some are mounted. Their commander is called Bin Bachi. (McLEan 1818).


Albanian Infantry
These troops were native Albanians, often considered the best in the Turkish army, at least the most fearless (or foolhardy) regularly forming the Forlorn Hope (McLean 1818). McLean (1818) also mentions they were powerful opponents of the Russians (presumably in the 1806-1812 Russo-Turkish war). They would regular volunteer for the forces of Pashas throughout the Ottoman Empire (McLean 1818).

Serbian HaydukSerbian militia formed as circa 100 man Hayduks under a buljakbasha (similar to junior NCO). Formed from mountain bandits.

Bosnian Panduks/Pandurs and eflak sharpshooters
Bosnian troops from the frontier.

Bulgarian Infantry

Wallachian Dorobanti and Pandurs

Moldavian Slujitori

Kurdish Musketeers
Mounted infantry.

Pasha of Baghdad
Had his own Mamelukes from Georgian slaves. Fortifications manned by Arab troops.

Cavalry

Regular Cavalry
Sipahi
The Sipahi were the main cavalry force of the Turkish army. They were drawn from their European and Asiatic provinces. The officers appear to have worn a long blue coat with a large band of red piped with yellow along either side, yellow boots, white turban and red fez (plumes on the Asian, flat on the European). But this may be a copied image. So don't quote me! In the background of the European Sipahi below there is a trooper with a red top, blue pants. Perhaps similar to the European infantry?

There were around 10,000 paid Sipahi during the period.

Irregular Cavalry

Mamelukes
The Mamelukes were Circassian slaves, originally ruling Egypt from 877-905CE and again 1250-1517CE. They remained powerful throughout these periods. They regained power in 1749CE controlling Egypt once again. The Sultan destroyed them in 1811. The Mamelukes were an important organisation and their members helped to administer the eastern Ottoman empire. There were perhaps around 10,000 Mamelukes in Egypt. 

The Mamelukes were highly trained, carried a pair of pistols and usually a blunderbuss as well as knives and swords.

Akindjis
Mounted light volunteer cavalry. Volunteered on the basis of hope of plunder. Useful as scouts and advance guards but little else. (Schevill, Ferdinand 1922 The History of the Balkan Peninsula. Ayer Publishing).

Deli
Rural militia cavalry. From Balkans and Anatolia.

Segban
Usually Turkish Anatolians.

Levents
Mostly Kurdish.

Tartars

Navy

In 1790 the Ottoman Empire possessed 30 ships-of-the-line, 50 frigates and 100 galleys. The sailors were generally from the Greek provinces. The vessels were similar to European designs however their

tactical knowledge was lacking. As mentioned above the 101st orta of the Janissaries were marines.

Artillery

I have found out little on the artillery. There as clearly foot and horse artillery. There were also mortars.

Theatres

Egypt – 1798-1800 - French
Crimea and Balkans – 1788-1791/1792 – Austria/Russia
Moldavia, Wallachia, Bessarabia – 1806-1812 – Russia. British fleet in 1808?
Serbia – 1804-1815 – nationalist uprising

Illustrations

Infantry

Regular

Nizam-i Cedit - New Army
2nd reform under Sultan Mahmoud. Post 1808.
Colonel - Chef du Battalion

Officer

Soldier

Soldiers of the Nizam-i Cedit under Selim III (to 1808). Kalpak wearing, flanker, flanker, ordinary infantryman. Note the skull cap on the first flanker. 



Janissaries


Janissary General

Colonel of Janissary - Corbaci - 'Giver of Soup'

Subaltern of Janissary
Janissary Captain

Janissary Captain

Janissary Bimbasha - there are four of these under a captain.

Ladle Bearer. The Janissaries officers were named for positions in the Sultan's household. McLean (1818) records the 'colours' of the ortas being a kettle and ladle, the loss of either would lead to the disbanding of the orta.
Cooks? Or officers? Not sure because of the whole odd titles thing.

Chasseurs and Officer 33rd orta?
Officer of the 1st orta?


Janissary
Another Janissary
Janissary
Janissary in alternate uniform
Janissary of a Fireman Orta
Janissary of a police orta on the beat

Elite and Guard

Solaks - Imperial Palace Guard
Bostanji

Commander of the 1st Guard Corp

Sargent of Com' of the Guard Corp
Executor of High works (sounds important!)


Provincial
Chief of Volunteers - Azabs or Kirjalis perhaps?


Albanian Officer

Albanian infantry
Albanian Infantry

Arnaut Infantry
Wallachian Infantry

Bulgarian Infantry

Baghdad Infantry - perhaps Arab?


Light Infantry of Arabia Felix
Archer
Archer with Mamelukes


Egypt and Mamelukes
Military Chief, Attendant to the Aga, of Egypt

Officer of Mamelukes

Mameluke of Egypt
Mameluke of Constantinople

Mameluke of the Grand Seigneur

Mameluke of the Grand Vizier


Regular Cavalry

Pasha or General of Cavalry

Sipahi Officer


Sipahi - Asiatic provinces light cavalry


Sipahi - Asiatic provinces light cavalry

Sipahi - Asiatic provinces light cavalry
Sipahi? Not sure if they had the same name. European provinces light cavalry
Sipahi

Sipahi of Baghdad
Sipahi, Zaim, with a large fief.

Irregular Cavalry
Chief of Irregular Cavalry - Akindjis perhaps?

Deli
Cavalry of Allepo

Court and Senior Administrative Officers


Sultan Mahmoud II

Sultan in state apparel at the Bairam fest.

Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier in state dress

Chef du Corps
Serasaker - Field Marshal or Chef du Corps

Lieutenant General
Aide de Camp to the Lieutenant General

General of the Army Arsenal
Military Chief of Upper Egypt

Navy

Captain Pacha - Grand Admiral
Captain Pasha - Grand Admiral, Another print
Captain Pasha - Grand Admiral, note turban, but fur trimmed coat remains.

Galley Captain

Sailor - Possibly Janissary 101st orta

Turkish Marine - Possibly 101st orta

Artillery, Armoury, Engineers, Ordinance

Turkish artillery
Chief of Artillery
Horse artilleryman
Officer of the artillery - looks like the horse artillery as above.

Turkish artillery, artilleryman (Foot artillery?)

Foot artilleryman

Bombardiers - mortar gunners
Colonel and Guard of the Armoury
Officer of the Ordinance



References

Elting, J.R., 2000. Minor States. In Napoleonic Uniforms Vol. IV. Rosemont, Illinois: The Emperor’s Press, pp. 634-635. Janissary and European Infantryman.

Haythorthwaite, P.J., 1990. Ottoman Empire. In The Napoleonic Source Book, London: Arms & Armour. Love this book, very useful. Out of print so you have to hunt around.

Johnson, W., E., 1994. The Crescent among the Eagles the Ottoman Empire and the Napoleonic Wars, 1792-1815 1st ed., Ocean Springs, MS: W. Johnson, distributed by G. Nafziger. Now have a copy from Nafziger, soon to be reviewed (12/12)!

McLean, T., 1818. The Military Costume of Turkey, London: Thomas McLean. Available Google Books. Very useful with descriptions.

Moiret, Joseph-Marie. Memoirs of Napoleon’s Egyptian Expedition, 1798-1801. Haven't got this. Would like a copy though! Link

Morier, J.P., 1801. Memoir of a Campaign with the Ottoman Army in Egypt from February to July 1800: Containing a description of the Turkish Army.-The Journal of its March from Syria.-General Observations of the Arabs and on the Treaty of El-Arish, with an account of the Event which followed it., Piccadilly: J. Debrett. Available Google Books

Nicolle, D., 1998. Armies of the Ottoman Empire 1775–1820, Osprey Publishing. Talked to Osprey about when they will have all their books digitised. Slowly slowly. Link

Nicolle, D., 1995. The Janissaries, Osprey Publishing. Ditto. Link.

Pope, S., 1999. Ottoman Empire etc. In Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars. London: Cassell.

Sweet, D., 1975. The Turkish Army of the Napoleonic Wars. Empires, Eagles and Lions, (74), p.75ff. Someone must have a copy :(

Napoleon Series

Wikipedia actually has some good info.

New York Public Library
The Vinkhuijzen collection of military uniforms / Turkey /
This has a lot of very good and useful pictures, check out the many other countries, I haven't yet..  The collections I have used are the 1810-1817 some of these make up McLeans (1818) book above and the 1820 collection (at least one is also in the McLean book). Link

Great Battles Blog
Some useful papers but mainly about much earlier periods.
Plates dated 1805 from an album labelled: Vorstellung der vorzuglichsten Gattungen des Türckischen Militairs und ihrer Officiere. Presentation of the genres of Turkish military men and their officers. Link

Characteristic representation of the principal European military menor, Augsburger Bilder, 1802-1810, Ottoman. Link

The Corps of the Janizaries By Arthur Leon Horniker. Link

Useful Maps

David Rumsey Historical Map Collection. Link. So many maps, sooo good.
Turkey in Europe in 1811. Link
Turkey in Asia, 1811. Link

Models

The Balkan History page has some Ottoman models painted up. Link

15/18mm

AB figures (15/18mm) at Eureka Miniatures has the basic Ottomans. Link
Minifigs (15mm) Ottoman Turks. Link
Essex Miniatures (15mm) has some Renaissance Turks that would do. Link
Venexia Miniatures (15mm) Have what looks like a very nice range. Link
Museum Miniatures (15/18mm?) have an interesting range you might be able to pull a few models from. Link
Quick Reaction Force (15mm) have a lot of models in their medieval and renaissance Turk range. Link
15mm.co.uk have a stocky range of Ottoman renaissance turks. Link I rather like the look of them.
Roundway Models (15mm). I found them through Navwar under 15mm, medieval and renaissance, then had to search through the pages (third I think). Link. No pics :(
Legio Heroica, an Italian company. They are "Vienna 1683” Ottoman Turks but they look usable  convertible. Their scale page puts them at about Essex size (c.15mm?). Link. I really like these.
Vexillia Limited (15mm) They bought One Tree Miniatures Ottoman range. Link.

25/28mm

Parkfield (25mm) have a nice range of models. Link
Brigade Games (28mm?) have what look like some very nice models. Link
Dixon Miniatures UK (25mm). A good number of models. Link
The Assault Group (28mm) have some Renaissance Ottomans that could be used. Link
Perry Miniatures have Bashi-Bazouks which could be used. Link
Foundry Miniatures (28mm) crimean turks might be useful for Nezim-i Cedit. Link
Old Glory (25mm) Ottoman Turks. Link. A lot of different models.
RSM 95 (30mm?) hard to figure out how to buy these, not sure of the quality. Link. Review here.
Eureka Miniatures (28mm) has a similar range to the AB in 15mm. Link

Last updated 1/2013
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